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Queen Bee
Nov 8, 2008
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Finland, Helsinki
Hive Type

Though nosemosis caused by Nosema apis has been a well known bee disease for a long
time, questions of the prevention and control are intensively discussed by beekeepers all
over the world again. The uncertainty of its epidemiology increases the anxiety induced
both by colony collapse disorder in many places, and by the presence of the newly
introduced species N. ceranae. In our investigations the efficacy of the well known
fumagillin antibiotics has been compared with another preparation of different structure

Although the registration of fumagillin has been withdrawn in EU countries a great many
beekeepers are using it all over the world.
Since the utilization of antibiotics has more and more limitation in food stuff producing
animals, finding an appropriate (non-antibiotic) replacement is a recurring problem.
Nonosz® is a Hungarian made preparation of curative effect (sodium ortho-hydroxy-
carbonic acid and Beta vulgaris cv.- Chemor Kft) that entered into the market on the basis
of preliminary positive results against nosemosis.
Both in laboratory induced infections and in experiments on infected honeybee colonies
the efficacy of the two products gave similar results in decreasing the spore production.
According to the results of the laboratory tests with N. ceranae delayed effect of the
Nonosz was detected. Some loss occurred in the first days, but the spore production
remained much below the control.
Our experiments seem to be evidence about the efficacy of fumagillin against N. ceranae
and also demonstrating that alternatives may exist for the medication of new-age
During the last years, Nosemosis has shown to be an increasing beekeeping problem
worldwide. Nowadays, two different Nosema species have been identified in Apis
mellifera: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae.
A long asymptomatic incubation period in the N. ceranae disease has been described
(Higes et al., 2008), involving continuous death of adult bees, non-stop brood rearing by
bees and colony loss in winter or early spring despite the presence of sufficient remaining
pollen and honey.
Evolution of 50 naturally infected colonies of Apis mellifera iberiensis during one year is
reported. In September 2007 the 50 colonies were infected by N. ceranae, and 26 of them
were infected by N. apis too (PCR tested). The colonies were divided into 5 groups of 10
colonies each: (C) Control (5 unmanaged colonies); (CS) Control with Syrup (5 colonies
supplied with syrup every season); (1T) One treatment in a year (5 colonies provided
with Fumagillin in Autumn); (2T) Two treatments in a year (5 colonies treated with
Fumagillin in Autumn and Spring); (4T) Four treatments in a year (5 colonies provided
with Fumagillin every season).
The group of colonies with 2 treatments in a year was the most productive (5 times more
honey than the control group unmanaged) and showed a high level of vitality, considering
the amount of brood cells and the population of adult bees as a sign of it. The group with
4 treatments showed similar results.
The control groups, in spite of being asymptomatic, were less productive and less
populated. The unmanaged control colonies registered the highest number of dead
Thymol: an alternative treatment for control of Nosema ceranae ?

and lysozyme were assessed for potential use in control of Nosema ceranae infection of
honey bees. None of the substances showed an increased bee mortality or decreased
dietary preference. Adult worker bees from a nosema-free apiary were individually
infected with 1 l of sucrose syrup containing 18000 N. ceranae spores, placed in cages
and fed with candies cpntaining the screened substances. Infection levels were monitored
over 25 days, by removal and dissection of 2 live bees per cage. On day 25 post-infection
bees fed with candies containing thymol and resveratrol had significantly lower infection
rates, and bees supplied with resveratrol candy also lived significantly longer.
In a second set of trials the two most promising active ingredients, thymol (100 ppm) and
resveratrol (10 ppm), were supplied to artificially infected bees in candy or in syrup, with
the same procedure used in the first trials. On day 25 post-infection bees fed with thymol
syrup had significantly lower levels of infection compared to control bees. Bees fed with
thymol and resveratrol syrup lived significantly longer than bees fed with control syrup.
Following the promising results, field tests were performed by feeding naturally nosema
infected hives with syrup containing thymol during two consecutive springs. In the first
year no significant differences in infection levels were observed, while in the second year
the hives treated with thymol had a significantly greater decrease in infection compared
to the control group.
Api Herb and Vita Feed Gold are liquid feeds that are on sale in EU for the prevention
and control of Nosemosis. While Api Herb is based on vegetable essences and vitamins,
Vita Feed gold is based on natural beet extract and molasses.
In this work we report the results of the effectiveness of the two mentioned products in
reducing the number of spores of Nosema, after six weeks of treatments.
Both Api Herb and Vita Feed Gold resulted able to control the Nosema infection, as it
proven by a statistically significant difference between the untreated group and the two
treated groups (Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons).
For the first three weeks of treatments, Api Herb and Vita Feed Gold showed a similar
ability to control the Nosema infection, but from the 3rd week ahead, the Vita Feed Gold
treatment seemed to better control the number of spores of Nosema.
Nonosz® is a Hungarian made preparation of curative effect

In Hungary everybody who can read knows it is a joke. It is common sugar syrup with food preservative. Kind of "alternative medicine".