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Finman 

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It's interesting how insects and animals have moved around the world.
According one theory Aliens have have done many things on the globe. But where they did not help, they did not spread cultivated plants to every continent.
 
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Antipodes 

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According one theory Aliens have have done many things on the globe. But where they did not help, they did not spreaded cultivated plants to every continent.
Yes, that's probably how New Zealand got our tea trees (Leptospermum scoparium).
 

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Yes. Black bee arrived via Gibraltar from Marocco. Italian bee and its cousins came via Asia minor. That was noticed in 2003 when bees genome was mapped first time.
I wasn't aware of this; it was my understanding that the A. m. iberiensis of the M Lineage DID NOT descend from the A m. intermissa (from Marocco) of the A Lineage ... but the O Lineage evolved from the A Lineage, and from the O Lineage the separate C (carnica, ligustica, etc.) and M (iberiensis, mellifera) Lineages descended.

Can you provide us a link to that research?

UPDATE: The newest research posted by 0bee-1 will more than suffice, MORE THAN...!!!
 
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Finman 

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I wasn't aware of this; it was my understanding that the A. m. iberiensis of the M Lineage DID NOT descend from the A m. intermissa (from Marocco) of the A Lineage ... but the O Lineage evolved from the A Lineage, and from the O Lineage the separate C (carnica, ligustica, etc.) and M (iberiensis, mellifera) Lineages descended.

Can you provide us a link to that research?
You surely will find the research yourself.
Not handy to handle it with smartphone.
 

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Mitochondrial genomes illuminate the evolutionary history of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) - Scientific Reports this might also be of interest :) published in 2020 so pretty much upto date... an open access paper to free to download
" A. mellifera colonised Europe through at least two pathways, across the Strait of Gibraltar and via Asia Minor. "
I don't believe it, we've been using genetic analysis in which there was an error.
Also this Paper seems to be saying that the Apis mellifera iberiensis is NOT a member of the M Lineage, that's very significant, it means that the AMM the Black Bee is Asian!
 

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I don't believe it, we've been using genetic analysis in which there was an error.
Also this Paper seems to be saying that the Apis mellifera iberiensis is NOT a member of the M Lineage, that's very significant, it means that the AMM the Black Bee is Asian!
What is M lineage?
 

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What is M lineage?
Until recently it was the A.m.mellifera and A.m.iberiensis, but the iberiensis (Spain) appears to be being removed, while the A.m.sinisxinyuan (western China) has been added.
Basically the recent research says they have no idea where the M lineage came from and how it got there!
 

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Until recently it was the A.m.mellifera and A.m.iberiensis, but the iberiensis (Spain) appears to be being removed, while the A.m.sinisxinyuan (western China) has been added.
Basically the recent research says they have no idea where the M lineage came from and how it got there!
Aristotle observed "The more you know, the more you realize you don't know" and to misquote Einstein — the more I realize how much I don’t know, the more I want to learn.
 

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It is strange that 20 years ago the genome of honey bee was revieled, and after thar the story of honeybee has been a mystery. But if you look closer, it is always Black bee, which has huge secrets.

Now nobody knows, from where Iberian bees came? It is a mystery!

* Did Black bee came from Africa and jumped over Iberian bees to the tundra of Europe,?

* Did Black bee came from nowhere and jumped over Italian bee and ovet Alps to the western Europe?

* Is the Black bee origin unwanted like birth of Moses? He was found from straw basket. In old days, when the birth was unwanted, it was said that the birth is a mystery.
 

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I read that Apis iberensis is something special. Scientist do not know, from where it has come.

At least I found a research than mitocondrial DNA is similar as mitocondrias in South African bees, and similar as in Eastern Africa.
And again Spanish write that during ice Age iberian bees have had refugees in Spain.

One author wrote in 2018 in American Beejournal, that Black bees have lived perhaps on the area of Germany over Ice Age. So he believes that during Ice Age Black bees lived on same area as today.That describes, how loose is the knowledge behind those " refugee theories". It is religion but not knowledge.
 
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