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What is European Foulbrood

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Finman 

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Australia

http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/27_10633_ENA_HTML.htm


European foulbrood (EFB) is a brood disease of honeybees caused by the bacterium Melissococcus pluton. The disease is endemic throughout eastern Australia, but is not known to occur in Western Australia.

Treatment
When EFB infection is light, treatment is usually not required as the disease often disappears during a good nectar flow. Re-queening the hive is also advocated as a treatment. Stress is also an important factor in the control of EFB. Stress can result from:

poor nutrition
working winter honey flows
excess movements of hives
insecticide poisoning
sudden expansion of the brood, resulting in insufficient nurse bees.

Antibiotics will be prescribed only after a positive laboratory diagnosis of EFB has been made. When 20 % of hives are infected, it is advisable to treat all hives. Consult with DPI&F apiary staff when antibiotic application is sought.

Management
prevent robbing
replace at least three brood combs each year
re-queen annually using a strain of queen with good hygienic behaviour
maintain good nutrition for the bees.
 

Finman 

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Bulgaria http://www.uni-sz.bg/tsj/Vol3No2/N.rusenova.pdf

Control

According to the new normative acts in
the Republic of Bulgaria, the control of the
European foulbrood is performed without the
use of antibiotics. The bee families with
severe and/or advanced disease are destroyed,
and those that are slightly affected and yet
strong are cured via:
• removing the combs from the hive with
affected brood;
• moving bee colonies in other previously
disinfected hives;
• isolation of queens for a week with regard
to sealing the healthy brood and sanitation
of hive;
• crowding of nests in order to populate all
frames with bees;
• removing the moisture from hives;
• nutrition of families with honey and
pollen, honey-sugar pie or sugar syrup;
• if possible, re-queening of colonies with
young, fertilised queens;
• uniting weakened families and families
with few bees;
• melting the old combs and combs with
affected brood for wax.
 

Finman 

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Controlling European foulbrood with the shook swarm method and oxytetracycline in the UK
Ruth J. Waite, Michael A. Brown, Helen M. Thompson and Medwin H. Bew

National Bee Unit, Central Science Laboratory, York, YO41 1LZ, UK
(Received 15 November 2002; revised 17 March 2003; accepted 8 April 2003)

Abstract
Colonies infected with European foulbrood (EFB) were treated with the shook swarm method in combination with oxytetracycline (OTC) and compared with those treated with OTC alone, the usual treatment for EFB in England and Wales. Success rates and instances of recurrence in the following season were recorded in the seasons 2000 and 2001 respectively. Both treatments had similar success rates with respect to elimination of EFB in 2000. Shook swarm plus OTC treatment resulted in a lower level of EFB recurrence in the 2001 season than OTC treatment alone. Colonies treated with the shook swarm plus OTC method showed a recurrence rate of 4.8%, whereas those treated with OTC alone had a recurrence in 21.1% of cases. The differences were shown to be significant at the 10% level. These results suggest that the shook swarm plus OTC method could be a valid method for EFB treatment and control in the UK.
 

Finman 

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Switzerland
http://www.alp.admin.ch/themen/00502/00515/00524/index.html?lang=en

European foul brood
The European foul brood is a bee disease which should be controlled according to Swiss Animal Epidemic Regulation. In Switzerland, after being in control during the last 30 years, this disease seems to get out of hand. From 1970 until 1998 there were 20 to 50 disease cases per year, which were sanitized by the veterinary authorities. Since 1999 there is a significant increase of the cases. 2006 there were more than 300 apiaries affected and for 2007 we expect that figure to reach more than 400. The following papers represent the state of the knowledge on that disease and on the measures for it’s control.
 

Finman 

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Germany 1992 http://www.springerlink.com/content/q86j041240305736/fulltext.pdf?page=1

INTRODUCTION
Selection towards disease resistance is difficult in honeybees (Apis mellifera)
if only the workers or the worker brood are affected. A well-known example
revealing this problem was the selection programme for stock resistant
against Bacillus larvae (Rothenbuhler, 1958 ).
This bacterium causes the death of larvae in capped cells. Selection for increased hygienic behaviour of the workers finally led to the development of resistant strains (Rothenbuhler,
1964a,b). However, breeding this trait was extremely arduous, because the
sexual reproductives cannot be selected since queens and drones are not involved
in hygienic behaviour. Queens and drones usually do not express any
behavioural or physiological traits related to colony productivity and this is a
major handicap for honeybee breeding in general (Rinderer, I977). How-
 

gavin 

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Hi Finman

.
Scotland

Seems to be in panic... not much what to do...except varroa control...
And comments on maintaining strong colonies, feeding, reducing stress too.

What there gives you the impression that there is panic? There's concern, action, meetings, education, self-help, and annoyance that we are in this state. Everything there should be.

The best thing for amateurs in the area to do at the moment is to learn how to recognise the diseases. We are not allowed to administer antibiotics but a bee inspector can do so if he (or she) is called out and the case is confirmed. At the moment the inspectors are having a really hard time catching up so they do not have the time but if amateurs find the early stages then treatment can be arranged.

The meetings are about identification, diagnosis, treatment options and like. We are having to learn a lot about these diseases, and learn fast.

The shook swarm methods will need to be used on a big scale, but that cannot start until spring so there is time for people to learn these things - what is needed now is to learn to find it in the early stages of the disease, and to learn how to stop spreading it.

Australia: yes, EFB is endemic in E Australia. W Australia is so concerned that it may reach there that they do not allow unpasturised honey to be moved there from E Australia. Their management policy based on antibiotics will not succeed in the long term unless it is backed up by regular searches, just the same as any similar policy elsewhere.

In England cases have been declining since a high point in 1999 following a major effort by the inspection service to find and eliminate disease, and to teach beekeepers how to change their management to reduce spread and spot disease early.

Did you notice that we have an AFB problem too? Last Wednesday the totals were 172 EFB colonies and 39 AFB colonies recorded by the inspectors, and more destroyed by the beekeepers.

all the best

Gavin
 
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Bcrazy 

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Hi Gavin,

I am so sorry for all the beekeepers who have suffered with either AFB or EFB.

I don't really know how they are feeling inside as its not of their making, we do not have control over where our bees forage and travel to.

I know that your associations will be doing everything in their power to minimise the spread and take measures to ensure that the beekeeper can identify both brood diseases.

Wishing you all a speedy recovery.

Regards;
 

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